Jainism

Shrut-Paramparaa after Bhagwan Mahaveer

Shrut — Knowledge acquired by hearing
Paramparaa — A series of Aachaaryas who got the knowledge of Bhagwan Mahaveer’s precepts by hearing and transferred it to the next generation.

We are following the precepts or discipline of Bhagwan Mahaveer, the last 24th teerthankar, so this period is called, Bhagwan Mahaveer’s shaasan or Jin-shaasan.

Bhagwan Mahaveer’s first precept (divya-dhwani) was delivered on the day, ‘Shraavan Krishna Pratipadaa’ on Vipulaachal Parvat (hill) near Raj-grihee, the capital of Magadh Empire. His principal scholar, Gandhar Indrabhooti Gautam acquired it in whole and divided the mater of precepts in 12 Anga and 14 Poorva according to the subject, this way Bhagwan Mahaveer became, the interpretator and Indrabhooti Gautam Became the first author. From Gandhar Indrabhooti Gautam this Shrut was transferred to Sudharma Swami and from Sudharma Swami to Jamboo Swami.

Up to 62 years after salvation of Bhagwan Mahaveer, these three omniscients imparted the knowledge through precepts to devotees.

Later on up to 100 years five Shrut Kevalies (persons having the knowledge of Shrut as per omniscience named (1) Shri Vishnu, (2) Shri Nandimitra, (3) Shri Aparaajit, (4) Shri Govardhan and (5) Shri Bhadrabaahu hold the full knowledge of 12 Anga

Later on up to 183 years after above five Shrut-Kevalies, 11 Aachaarya hold the knowledge of ten Poorva. There names are: (1)Shri Vishaakhaachaarya, (2) Shri Proshthil, (3) Shri Kshatriya, (4) Shri Jaisen, (5) Shri Naagsen, (6) Shri Siddhaarth, (7) Shri Dhritisen, (8) Shri Vijay, (9) Shri Buddhimaan, (10) Shri Gang-dev and (11) Shri Dharm Sen.

After this, up to 220 years, five Aachaarya named (1) Shri Nakshatra,(2) Shri Jaipaal, (3) Shri Paandunaam, (4) Shri Dhruvsen, and (5) Shri Kansaachaarya hold the knowledge of 11 Anga.

All above Aachaarya gave the knowledge of path of salvation and Tatva-gyan to devotees as per Bhagwan Mahaveer.

Later on, up to 118 years, five Aachaarya named (1) Shri Subhadra, (2) Shri Yashobhadra, (3) Shri Bhadrabaahu (second), (4) Shri Mahoyash and (5) Shri Lohaachaarya hold the knowledge of first Anga-Aachaaraang.

This way up to 683 years, after Bhagwan Mahaveer’s salvation, the knowledge of Anga and Poorva was available to devotees as it was at the time of Bhagwan Mahaveer. Later on this knowledge of Anga and Poorva got vanished gradually.

Beginning of written texts on Jainism

Later on it was felt by various Aachaaryas that now Jain-Shrut must be written to preserve it for future generations. First this thought rose in the mind of Aachaarya Dharsen, who stayed at Girnaar Hill in first century AC. Aachaarya Dharsen well knew about fourth prabhrit named Mahakarm Prabhriti of fifth Vastu Adhikaar of second Agraayani Poorva. So to transfer this knowledge to appropriate person, he gave his knowledge to two munies (monks) named Pushpdant and Bhootbali. Both munies learnt all as per Aachaarya Dharsen and then they wrote first written text of Jainism called ‘Shatkhandaagam’. This great text was completed on Jyeshth Shukla Panchami-the day celebrated as ‘Shrut-Panchami’.

At the same time Aachaarya Gundhar was also present, who possessed the knowledge of 3rd Prabhrit of 10th Vastu Adhikar of 5th Gyan-Pravaad Poorva. He wrote a text ‘Kashaay-Paahur’. A commentary on Kashaay-Paahur was written by Aachaarya Yativrishabh named ‘Choorni-sutra’, which is not available today. Another detailed commentary on Kashaay-Paahur was written by Aachaarya Veersen and Jinsen called ‘Jai-Dhaval’ Jai-Dhaval is available today.

Aachaarya Veersen and Jinsen also wrote huge commentary on Shatkhandaagam called ‘Dhaval or Dhavalaa’.

In first century of Vikram-Samvat (V.S.), famous great Aachaarya Kund-Kund was also present in south. He wrote five texts called Panch-Parmaagam named (1) Samaysaar, (2) Pravachansaar, (3) Niyamsaar, (4) Panchaastikaay-Sangraha and (5) Ashta-Paahur. These five texts are called ‘Dwiteeya (second) Shrut-Skandh’.

Thus a trend got started to write the available knowledge of Bhagwan Mahaveer’s precepts, so that it may be used by future generations for their spiritual well being. Many Aachaaryas and Munies spared their valuable time in writing various aspects of Jainism in their texts which are available today also and are helpful to devotees to learn about the truth of world/universe, nature of various substances, their properties/characteristics and modifications, relations between two substances, perfection and freedom of soul, reasons/causes of worldly worries and ultimately the way to get free from worldly worries, to cut mesh of birth & death, and to attain salvation.

Some of such famous Aachaaryas and Munies, who have played an important role in writing the basic fundamentals of Jainism for future and wrote various texts, are given below:

  1. Aachaarya Vattker: He was contemporary to Aachaarya Kund-kund. only one text ‘Moolaachaar’ is available today written by him. This text has 12 chapters and 1252 couplets.

  2. Aachaarya Shivaarya: He wrote only one but very important text named ‘Bhagvati Aaradhana’ or ‘Moolaaradhana’ which has 40 chapters and 2166 couplets. Various commentaries are available on this text. Some are ‘Vijayodayaa teeka’ by shri Aparaajit Suri, ‘Moolaaradhana Darpan Teeka’ by Pandit Aashadhar, ‘Aaradhana Panjika’ by Shri Prabhachandra and ‘Bhaavaarth Deepika’ by Shri Shivjit Arun.

  3. Swaami Kaartikeya: He was present in first century, he wrote one famous text ‘Kaartikeyaanupreksha’. Bhattaarak Shubhchandra has written one commentary on it in V.S.1613.

  4. Aachaarya Umaaswaami: He was present in 2nd century. He wrote very popular and first text in Sansakrit language named ‘Tatvaarth-Sootra’ or ‘Moksh-Shaastra’. Three commentaries are available on this great text, ‘Tatvaarth Vritti’ or ‘Sarvaarth Siddhi’ by Aachaarya Poojyapaad, ‘Tatvaarth Vaartik’ by Bhatt Aklank Dev and ‘Tatvaarth Shlok Vaartik’ by Aachaarya Vidyaanand.

  5. Aachaarya Swaami Samantbhadra: He was also present in 2nd century. He is included in great Aachaaryas of Jainism who worked a lot to make Jainism popular. He was a great poet, thinker, philosopher and debater too. His creations include ‘Brihat Swayambhoo Stotra’, ‘Stuti Vidyaa Jin Shatak’, ‘Devaagam Stotra’ or ‘Aapta-Meemaansa’, ‘Yuktyaanushaasan’, ‘Ratna-karand Shraavakaachaar’, ‘Jeev-Siddhi’, ‘Tatvaanushaasan’, ‘Praakrit-Vyaakaran’, ‘Pramaan-Padaarth’, ‘Karma-Praabhrit Teeka’ and ‘Gandha-Hasti Mahaabhaashya’ (unavailable).

  6. Aachaarya Vimalsuri: He was present in 4th century. He wrote one text ‘Paum Chariyam’, this is based on the life story of Shri Ram Chandra.

  7. Aachaarya Poojyapaad Devnandi: He was present in 6th century. His feet were worshiped by gods of heaven because of great penance, so he was called ‘Poojyapaad’. His creations include ‘Dash-bhakti’, ‘Janmaabhishek’, ‘Tatvaarth Vritti’, ‘Samaadhi-tantra’, ‘Ishtopdesh’, ‘Jainendra-Vyaakaran’ and ‘Siddh-Priya Stotra’.

  8. Aachaarya Paatrakesari: He was present in second half of 6th century. He wrote ‘Trilakshanak Darshan’ (unavailable) and ‘Paatrakesari Stotra’ or ‘Jinendra Gun Samstuti’.

  9. Aachaarya Yogindudev: He was also present in 6th century. His creations include ‘Paramaatmaprakash’ (in Apbhransh language), ‘Amritaasheeti’ (in Sanskrit) and ‘Nijaatmashatak’ (in Praakrit).

  10. Aachaarya Siddh Sen: He was present in 7th century of V.S. His creations are ‘Sanmati Sootra’ (in Praakrit) and ‘Kalyaan-Mandir Stotra’ (in sanskrit).

  11. Aachaarya Rishiputra: He was present in 6th – 7th century. He was great scholar of ‘Jyotish-shaastra’ (astrology). It is said that he wrote a text ‘Nimitta Shaastra’ in Praakrit language but now unavailable.

  12. Aachaarya Maantung: His period is also 7th century. He wrote one but most popular stotra named ‘Bhaktaamar Stotra’- a prayer of first Teerthankar Bhagwan Rishabhdev which has 48 couplets. This is highly popular and daily recited by most of Jains.

  13. Aachaarya Ravishen: His period is 8th century .He wrote one but very popular text on life story of Bhagwan Ramchandra called ‘Padma-Puraan’ or ‘Padma-Charit’ in Sanskrit .

  14. Aachaarya Jataasingh Nandi– He was present in 7th-8th century. He wrote only one text ‘Varaang Charit’, this is available today.

  15. Aachaarya Bhatt Aklankdev: His period is also 8th century. This ascetic saint is remembered with great honor and faith for his work for Jainism. He was also a great philosopher, thinker and debater of his time. He wrote many texts named ‘Lagheeyastraya’ with own commentary on it, ‘Nyaayavinishchaya Samvritti’, ‘Pramaan Sangrih Samvritti’, ‘Swaroop Sambodhan Panchvinshati’. He also wrote two famous commentaries named ‘Tatvaarth Vaartik’ and ‘Ashta-Shatee’- a commentary on Devaagam Stotra by Swaami Samant-Bhadra.

  16. Aachaarya Jinsen (first): His period is second half of 8th century. He wrote only one but most popular text based on life story of Lord Krishna and 22nd Teerthankar Bhagwan Neminath named ‘Harivansh Puraan’ .This is in Sanskrit language.

  17. Aachaarya Veersen: He, the great Aachaarya was present in 9th century. He wrote the two great commentaries first ‘Dhawlaa’ on the first text of Jainism—the Shatkhandaagam by Aachaarya Pushpdant and Bhootbali, second-‘Jaidhawlaa’ on Aachaarya Gundhar`s Kashaaypaahur. By these two commentaries, Aachaarya Veersen played a very significant role and made the fundamentals of Jainism easily understandable for future generations.

  18. Aachaarya Jinsen (second): This great Aachaarya was also present in 9th century and completed the commentary ‘Jaidhawlaa’,written by Aachaarya Veersen. He also wrote two original texts–(1) Paarshvaabhyudaya—the life story of 23rd teerthankar Bhagwan Paarshvanath, (2) Aadipuraan—the life story of 1st Teerthankar Bhagwan Aadinath Rishabhdev.

  19. Aachaarya Shaakataayan Paalyakeerti: he was also present in 9th century. His creations are-‘Shaakataayan Shabdaanushaasan’ with his own commentary –Amoghvritti, Stri-mukti Prakaran and Kevali-bhukti Prakaran.

  20. Aachaarya Gunbhadra: He was present in second half of 9th century. He wrote another ‘Aadi Puraan’ and then ‘Uttar Puraan’. Uttar Puraan describes the life stories of rest of 23 Teerthankars, 12 Chakravarties and other great personals including Balbhadra, Naaraayan, Pratinaaraayan, Kaamdev and others. He also wrote ‘Aatmaanushaasan’—this text describes about soul and ‘Jindatt Charit Kaavya’.

  21. Aachaarya Vaadeebh Singh Suri: His period is also 9th century. He wrote two texts,(1) ‘Kshatra Churaamani’—this describes the life story of Jeevandhar Kumar-contemporary to Bhagvan Mahaveer and (2) Gadya Chintaamani.

  22. Shri Mahaveeraachaarya: He was present in 1st half of 9th century. His creations are ‘Ganit Saar Sangrah’ based on mathematics and ‘Jyoti Patal’(based on astrology, now unavailable).

  23. Aachaarya Shubh Chandra: His period is also 9th century. One text written by him named ‘Gyaanaarnava’ (another name – ‘Yog-pradeep’) is available today.

  24. Aachaarya Brihat Anantveerya: He wrote two texts, one is ‘Siddhi-Vinishchaya Teeka’ and another is Pramaan-Sangrah Bhaashya or ‘Pramaan Sangrahaalankaar’, both are unavailable .

  25. Aachaarya Veernandi: He was present in 10th century. He wrote only one text ‘Chandraprabh Charit’, this is based on life story of 8th Teerthankar Bhagwan Chandraprabh.

  26. Shri Mahaasenaachaarya: His period is also 10th century. His only one creation named ‘Pradyumn Charit’ is available today. This is based on the life story of Pradyumn Kumar-the Lord Krishna`s son.

  27. Aachaarya Somdev Suri: His period is also 10th century. His three creations – Neeti Vaakyaamrit, Yashastilak Champoo and Adhyaatm Tarangini are available today.

  28. Aachaarya Padmanandi (first): He was also present in 10th century. His creations are—Jamboodeev Pannatti, Dhamm Rasaayan and Panch Sangrah Vritti.

  29. Aachaarya Vidyaanand: He was also a great saint of 10th century. He worked lot to enrich the jain literature and wrote many important & popular texts. Those are ‘Aapt Pareekshaa’ with detailed commentary by self, ‘Pramaan Pareekshaa’, ‘Patra Pareekshaa’, ‘Satya-Shaasan Pareekshaa’, ‘Shreepur Parshvanath Stotra’ and ‘Vidyaanand Mahodaya’. He also wrote detailed commentaries named Ashtasahastree (This is the detailed & vast commentary on Aapt-meemaansa or Devaagam-Stotra by Swaami Samantbhadra), Tatvaarth–Shlok Vaartik(a commentary on Tatvaarth-Sootra by Umaaswaami) and Yuktyaanushaasanaalankaar. These all texts show his dedication, wisdom & scholar towards Jainism and also his kindness for future generation’s spiritual wellbeing.

  30. Aachaarya Maanikyanandi: He was present in beginning of 11th century. He wrote a very important text ‘Pareekshaamukh Sutra’, this text is related to logic.

  31. Aachaarya Prabhaachandra: His period is 11th century. He wrote a commentary on ‘Pareekshaamukh’ named ‘Prameya-kamal Maartand’ and his second text is ‘Nyaayakumudchandra’-a commentary on ‘Lagheeyastraya’.

  32. Aachaarya Vaadiraaj: His period is 1st half of 11th century. He also added a lot in jain literature by writing ‘Paarshvanath Charit’, ‘Ekeebhaav Stotra’, ‘Nyaayavinishchaya Vivaran’ and ‘Pramaan-Nirnaya’.

  33. Aachaarya Padm-nandi (second): He was also present in 11th century. He wrote only one text named ‘Padmnandi-panch-vinshatikaa’ having 25 chapters. This explains the spiritual thoughts and conducts which are helpful to attain self reliance or the real bliss.

  34. Aachaarya Jaisen (first): His period is also 11th century. His only one creation was named ‘Dharm-Ratnaakar’.

  35. Aachaarya Jaisen (second): The great Aachaarya was present in 11-12th century. He was also a great scholar of Jainism. He wrote detailed commentaries on Aachaarya Kund-Kund`s parmaagam-trayee (3 Texts) Samaysaar, Pravachansaar and Panchaastikaay-Sangrah in Sanskrit language. These texts are very helpful to understand the self (the soul), the nature of substances and their characteristics, reality of relations among them and after all the path of real freedom or moksh (Salvation).

  36. Aachaarya Ganadharkeerti: He was present in 11th century. He wrote a commentary on the text ‘Adhyaatm-Tarangini’.

  37. Aachaarya Ugraaditya: His period is also 11th century. He was a great scholar of ayurved too .So he wrote a text on ayurved named ‘Kalyaankaarakam’. This text describes the treatment of various types of disease according jain conduct and traditions.

  38. Aachaarya Raamsen: His period is also 11th century. His only text is called ‘Tattvaanushaasan’.

  39. Aachaarya Vasunandi (first): His period is 11th-12th century. His texts are ‘Pratishthaasaar-sangrah’, ‘Upaasakaachaar’ (shraavakaachaar) and a commentary on Moolaachaar (by Aachaarya Vattker) named Aachaar-vritti.

  40. Aachaarya Padm-prabh-maldhaari Dev: He, the great Aachaarya was present in 12th century. He wrote one but very important text-a commentary on Aachaarya Kund-Kund`s ‘Niyam-saar’ named ‘Taatparya-vritti’. Taatparya-vritti describes the nature and functions of soul. It is very useful for persons willing real bliss.

  41. Aachaarya Laghu Anant-veerya: He was present in 12th century. His only text is named ‘Pramey-Ratn-Maala’.

  42. Aachaarya Veernandi Siddhaant-Chakravarti: His period is also 12th century. His only text ‘Aachaar-saar’ is available today. This describes the conduct of jains.

  43. Aachaarya Brahm Dev: He was present in 12th century. He also added a lot in Jain Literature by creating various texts. He wrote a detailed commentary on ‘Brihat Dravya-Sangrah’ by Aachaarya Nemi Chandra Siddhaantidev and on ‘Parmaatm-prakaash’ (by Aachaarya Yogindu-dev).his original texts are- Tatva-deepak, Gyaan-deepak, Pratishthaa-tilak, Vivaah-patal and Kathaa-kosh.

  44. Aachaarya Paarshvadev: His period is 12th-13th century. His only text ‘Sangeet-Samaysaar’ is available.

  45. Bhattaarak Abhinav Dharm-Bhooshan: His period is 13th-14th century. His only text named ‘Nyaay-Deepikaa’ is available today.

  46. Bhattaarak Vardhmaan (first): He was present in 14th century. He wrote an epic named ‘Varaang-Charit’ in sanskrit language.

  47. Bhattaarak Sakal Keerti: This great saint and author was present in 2nd half of 15th century. He wrote lot of Puraans and Charits based on life stories of great personals e.g.-Shaantinaath charit, Vardhmaan Charit, Malli naath charit, Jamboo swami Charit, Shreepaal Charit, Aadi Puraan, Uttar Puraan, Paarshvnaath Puraan, Puraan-saar Sangrah, Vrat-kathaa Kosh. He also wrote prayers and poojaas e.g.-Paramaatm-raaj Stotra, Panch-Parmeshthee Poojaa, Ashtaanhik Poojaa, Solah-kaaran Poojaa, Gandhar-valay Poojaa. His other texts based on philosophy and conduct are – Prashnottaropaasakaachaar, Sadbhaashitaavali (Sukti-muktaavali), Siddhaant Deepak, Karm-Vipaak, Tatvaarth-saar Deepak, Aagamsaar, Saarchaturvinshatikaa, Dwaadash-Anuprekshaa, Samaadhi-maranotsaah Deepak.
    He also wrote poems and songs on various topics in Rajasthani Language, they are—Aaraadhanaa Pratibodh Saar, Nemeeshwar Geet, Muktaavali Geet, Namokaar Geet, Paarshvnaathaashtak, Solah-kaaran Raaso, Shikhaamani Raas, Ratnatraya Raas.

  48. Brahm Jindaas: He was present in 15th century. He also wrote in both of language Sanskrit and Rajasthani. His creations in Sanskrit are – Jamboo swami Charit, Ram Charit, Harivansh puraan, Pushpaanjali vrat Kathaa, Jamboo dweep Poojaa, Saardh-dway dweep Poojaa, Saptarshi Poojaa, Jyeshthi Jinvar Poojaa, Solah kaaran Poojaa, Guru Poojaa, Anant-vrat Poojaa and Jal-yaatraa Vidhi.
    In Rajasthani he wrote—Aadinaath Puraan, Harivansh Puraan, Ram-Sita Raas, Yashodhar Raas, Hanumat Raas, Naag kumaar Raas, Param hans Raas, Ajitnaath Raas, Holi Raas, Dharm parikshaa Raas, Jyeshthi jinvar Raas, Shrenik Raas, Samkit-Mithyaatva Raas, Sudarshan Raas, Ambikaa Raas, Naagashri Raas, Shreepaal Raas, Jamboo Swaami Raas, Bhadrabaahu Raas, Karm-vipaak Raas, Sukoshal-swaami Raas, Rohinee Raas, Solah-kaaran Raas, Dash-lakshan Raas, Anant-vrat Raas, Dhanya kumar Raas, Chaaru-datt Prabandh Raas, Pushpaanjali Raas, Dhanpaal Raas, Bhavishya datt Raas, Jeevandhar Raas, Nemeeshvar Raas, Karkandu Raas, Subhaum Chakravarti Raas, Atthaabees moolgun Raas, Mithyaadukkar Vintee, Baarah-vrat Geet, Jeevaraa Geet, Jinand geet, Aadinaath Stavan, Aalochanaa Jaimaal, Guru Jaimaal, Shaastra Poojaa, Sarasvati Poojaa, Guru Poojaa, Jamboodweep Poojaa, Nirdosh-saptami vrat Poojaa, Ravi vrat Kathaa, Chauraasee-jaati Jaimaal, Bhattaarak Vidyaadhar Kathaa, Ashtaang samyaktva kathaa, Vrat Kathaa and Panch Parmeshthee Gun Varnan.

  49. Somkeerti: He was also present in 15th century. His texts in sanskrit are – Sapt-vyasan Kathaa, Pradyumn Charit, Yashodhar Charit. In Rajasthani language, his creations are—Gurvaavali, Yashodhar Raas, Rishabh-naath kee Dhuli, Malli Geet, and Aadinaath vintee.

  50. Bhattaarak Bhuvankeerti: His period is beginning of 16th century. He wrote—Jeevandhar Raas, Jamboo swami Raas and Anjanaa charit.

  51. Aachaarya Gyaanbhushan: He was present in the 1st half of 16th century. He added jain literature in both Sanskrit and Hindi language. His creations in Sanskrit language are – Aatm-sambodhan Kaavya, Rishi-mandal Pooja, Tatvagyaan Tarangini, Poojaashtak Teeka, Panch-kalyaanakodyaapan Pooja, Nemi-nirvaan kaavya kee Panjika Teeka, Bhaktaamar Pooja, Shrut Pooja, Sarasvati Pooja, Sarasvati Stuti, Shaastra Mandal Pooja. His creations in Hindi are—Aadeeshvar-Faag, Jal-gaalan Raas, Posah-Raas, Shat-karm Raas and Naagadra Raas.

  52. Bhattaarak Shrut-saagar Suri: His period was 16th century. His texts are—Yashastilak Chandrika, Tatvaarth-Vritti, Tattva-traya Prakaashika, Jin-Sahastranaam Teeka, Mahaabhishek Teeka, Shat-paahur Teeka, Siddh-bhakti Teeka, Jyeshth-jinvar Katha(story), Siddh-chakraashtak Teeka, Ravi-vrat Katha, Sapt-param-sthaan Katha, Mukut-saptami Katha, Akshay-nidhi Katha, Shodash-Kaaran Katha, Megh-maala vrat Katha, Chandan-shashthee Katha, Labdhi-vidhaan Katha, Parandar-vidhaan Katha, Dash-laakshani vrat Katha, Pushpaanjali vrat Katha, Aakash-panchami vrat Katha, Muktaavali vrat Katha, Nirdukh-saptami vrat Katha, Sugandh-dashmi Katha, Shraavan-dwaadashi Katha, Ratn-tray vrat Katha, Anant vrat Katha, Ashok rohini Katha, Tapo-lakshan-pankti Katha, Meru-pankti Katha, Vimaan-pankti Katha, Palli-vidhaan Katha, Shripaal Charit, Yashodhar Charit, Audaarya-Chintaamani(Praakrit-Vyaakaran), Shrut-skandh Pooja, parshv-naath Stavan and Shaantinaath Stavan.

Later on, many home living persons (such persons are called – Pandit) also appeared in society and by their deep and detailed knowledge, they served a lot to Jainism by writing poems, prayers, essays, commentaries on various texts, poojas and puraans etc. Such all writers used local languages for their creations, so that it may be easily acceptable/ understandable for the public of that period, which was unable to understand ancient Sanskrit or Praakrit literature written by various Aachaaryas.

Some, such popular writers and their work is given below—

  1. Mahaakavi Banaarasidaas: His period is 17th century. He is the first author of biography in Hindi language named – Ardh-Kathaanak. He also wrote – Naam-Maala, Banaarasi-vilaas (a collection of his poems and bhajans etc), Moh-Vivek Yuddh, and Samay-saar Naatak and Navras Padaavali (unavailable, destroyed by the author after attaining spiritual awareness and bliss). Samay-saar Naatak is based on the couplets in ‘Aatm-Khyaati’-a commentary by aachaarya Amritchandra on Famous text ‘Samay-saar’

  2. Bhaiyaa Bhagvati Daas: His period is 18th century of Vikram Samvat (17th-18th century AC). A collection of his poems and bhajans is available named –‘Brahm-Vilaas’.

  3. Mahaakavi Bhoodhar Daas: He was also present in 18th century. He wrote an epic –‘Paarshv-puraan’ based on 23rd Teerthankar`s life story, Jin-Shatak (a collection of 100 poems) and Pad-Sangrah-this is also a collection of songs, poems, couplets etc. on various topics.

  4. Kavi Dyaanat Raay: He was also present in 18th century. He is the author of various most popular poojas among digambar jains and popular bhajans, poems & couplets. His collection is called ‘Dyaanat-Vilaas’.

  5. Shri Nath Mal Bilala: He was also present in 18th century. His texts are – Siddhaant-Saar Deepak, Jin-gun Vilaas, Naag Kumaar Charit, Jeevandhar Charit and Jambu Swaami Charit.

  6. Pandit Daulat Raam Kaasliwal: He was present in 1st half of 18th century. His creations mainly are in the form of commentaries in local language. His texts are—Punyaasrav-vachanika, Kriyaa-kosh Bhaasha, Aadi-puraan Vachanika, Harivnmsh-Puraan, Paramaatm-prakaash Vachanika, Shripaal Charit, Adhyaatm Baarah-kharee, Vasunandi Shraavakaachaar, Padm-puraan Vachanika, Vivek-vilaas, Tattvaarth-sutra Bhaasha, Chaubees Dandak, Siddh-pooja, Aatm-batteesi, Saar-Samucchay, Jivandhar-charit and Purushaarth-siddhyupaay Teeka (incomplete).

  7. Aachaarya-Kalp Pandit Todar Mal: His period is 18th century. He was an extra ordinary scholar of Jainism and attributed by calling him ‘Aachaarya-kalp’ for his services and distinguished knowledge of Jain Texts. His creations include — Moksh-maarg prakaashak (incomplete), Rahasyapoorn chitthee (a letter describing the nature of soul and path to spiritual bliss), Arth-Sandrishti, Gommat-Saar Pooja, a detailed commentary of Gommat-Saar called ‘Samyak-gyaan Chandrika’, Labdhisaar Teeka, Kshapanaasaar teeka, Triloksaar teeka, Aatmaanushaasan teeka, Purushaarth-siddhyupaay Teeka (incomplete). Moksh-Maarg Prakaashak is a unique creation and most popularly studied text among jains. This text is written on question-answer pattern including nine chapters. All possible questions are rose by the author and are answered logically in very simple and easily understandable manner even to the beginner. This is very useful to understand the real causes of worldly worries and to learn the path of real bliss.

  8. Pandit Daulat Raam: His period is 19th century. He wrote one but most studied and recited text called –Chhahdhaala. This text has six chapters, starting from the causes and nature of troubles of the world, shows the path of salvation. This also describes the conduct of a devotee at home and at the stage of monk.

  9. Pandit Jaichand Chhabraa: His period is 1st half of 19th century. He was also a highly honored scholar of Jainism, who wrote many commentaries on various texts, they are called ‘vachanika’. His creations include – Sarvaarth-siddhi vachanika, Samay-Saar Vachanika, Asht-Paahur Vachanika, Kaartikeyaanupreksha Vachanika, Dravyasamgrah Vachanika, Gyaanaarnav Vachanika, Bhaktaamar-stotra Bhaasha.

  10. Pandit Sadaasukh Daas Kaasliwaal– His period is also 19th century. He also wrote commentaries on various texts in local language. They are – Ratnakarand Shraavkaachaar Vachanika, Bhagvati Aaraadhana Vachanika, Tattvaarth Sutra Vachanika, Akalankaashtak Vachanika, Nitya–niyam Pooja, Samaysaar Naatak vachanika, Nyaay-Deepika Vachanika, Rishi-Mandal Pooja Vachanika and Arth Prakaashika (an original text).

  11. Pandit Bhaag Chand: He was also present in 19th century. He wrote – Mahaaveeraashtak (sanskrit), Amitgati Shraavakaachaar vachanika, Updesh Siddhaant Ratn-maala Vachanika, Pramaan-pareeksha Vachanika, Neminaath Puraan, Gyaan-Suryoday Naatak vachanika, and Pad-Sangrah (a collection of poems & bhajans).

  12. Pandit Budh Chandra: He was also present in 19th century. He wrote –Tattvaarth bodh, Yogsaar Bhaasha, Panchaastikaay Teeka, Budhjan Satsai, Budhjan vilaas and Pad-Samgrah.

  13. Pandit Vrindaavan Daas: His period is also 19th century. His creations are – Pravachan-Saar Teeka, Tees Chaubeesee Path, Chaubeesee Pooja, Chhand Shatak, Arhatpaasa Kevali and Vrindaavan Vilaas (a collection of songs and bhajans).

We all know that Jain Dharma was spread in all over India from ancient time. Many writers of other languages too have added the jain literature. The list of such authors is mentioned below—

Marathi Jain Writters

  1. Jindaas: His period is 17th century. He wrote one text named Hari-Vansh Puraan—this is based on the life story of Lord Krishna and 23rd teerthankar Bhagwan Neminath.

  2. Gundaas or Gunkeerti: His creations are Shrenik Puraan, Rukmani Haran, Padm-Puraan, Dharmaamrit and Ram Chandra Halhuli.

  3. Meghraj: His creations are Yashodhar Charit, Girnaar-yaatra and Parshv-nath Bhavaantar.

  4. Devendra Keerti: His only one creation is available named Kalika-Puraan.

Jain writers and poets in Tamil language:

  1. Thiruthakkthevar: His period is 7th century. He is the author of Tamil epic ‘Jeevak Chintaamani’, only one creation .

  2. Ilangovdigal: he wrote a poetic text named ‘Shilappaddikaar’.

  3. Tholamulithevar: He is the author of short poetic creation ‘Choolaamani’.

Jain writers and poets in Kannar language:

  1. Mahaakavi Pamp: His period is 10th century. He wrote-Aadi Puraan and a poetic text named ‘ Bharat’.

  2. Kavi Ponn: He was also present in 10th century. His two texts are available—Shaanti Puraan and Jinaaksharmaale.

  3. Kavi Rann: He was also present in 10th century. His creations are – Ajit Nath Puraan and Saahas-Bheem Vijay or Gadaa-Yuddh.

  4. Naagvarm: He also was present in 10th century. His only one creation based on poetry is available named ‘Chhandombudhi’.

  5. Naag Chandra: He was present in 2nd half of 11th century. His texts are –Samay Pareeksha, Dharmaamrit and Dharm Pareeksha.

  6. Keshav Raaj: He was present in 2nd half of 12th century. His only text was based on grammar named- ‘Shabd-Mani Darpan’.

  7. Kavi Jann: His period is 12th-13th century. His creations are – Dharmaamrit (shraavak-dharm), Yashodhar Charit and Anant-nath Puraan.

  8. Karnpaarya: He was present in 1st half of 13th century. He wrote ‘Pushpdant Puraan’.

  9. Mangras: he was present in the beginning of 16th century. His two creations are available named – Nemi Jineshwar Sangeet and Samyaktva Kaumudi.

  10. Ratnaakar Varni: he was present in 16th century. His creations are – Bharatesh Vaibhav, Ratnaakar Shatak and Aparaajit Shatak.

Thus we see that jain scholars have written various texts on different subjects of Jainism, not only in ancient languages but also in popular and modern languages. This process is still going on. Many authors of today’s world are still adding jain literature by their valuable creations.

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